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    Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Iwan, K. A., Gebauer, A. N., and Ginsberg, R. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):425-438. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. View abstract. 1997 Jun;7(2):138-43 Int J Sports Med 2000;21:139-45. van Loon, L. J., Murphy, R., Oosterlaar, A. M., Cameron-Smith, D., Hargreaves, M., Wagenmakers, A. J., and Snow, R. Creatine supplementation increases glycogen storage but not GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle. Huyzen RJ, Harder MP, Huet RC, et al. Johannsmeyer S, Candow BG, Brahms CM, Michel D, Zello GA. Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. La fosfocreatina nell'infarto miocardico acuto: studio randomizzato multicentrico. View abstract. Age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Short-term creatine supplementation does not improve muscle activation or sprint performance in humans. View abstract. 2018 Oct;12(5):253-260. View abstract. View abstract. Can creatine supplementation improve body composition and objective physical function in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients? Kingsley, M., Cunningham, D., Mason, L., Kilduff, L. P., and McEneny, J. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well trained power-lifters. Neurology 8-8-2006;67(3):480-484. Effect of low-dose, short-duration creatine supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance. Appl.Physiol Nutr.Metab 2011;36(3):419-422. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). J Appl.Physiol 2003;95(2):818-828. The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;36:258-62. Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Forsberg, A. M., Nilsson, E., Werneman, J., Bergstrom, J., and Hultman, E. Muscle composition in relation to age and sex. Juhn, M. S., O'Kane, J. W., and Vinci, D. M. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. Selsby, J. T., Beckett, K. D., Kern, M., and Devor, S. T. Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes. View abstract. View abstract. Weiss, B. Amino Acids 2011;40(5):1369-83. Maganaris, C. N. and Maughan, R. J. Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance capacity in resistance trained men. Vnitr.Lek. Collins J, Longhurst G, Roschel H, Gualano B. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(7):1293-1298. 2001;33(7):1101-1108. 2009;51(5):404-407. A randomized, double-blind, futility clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2009;105(6):899-908. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1995;78:670-3. No, studies have shown that consumption of creatine monohydrate does not cause any serious adverse side effects. Smith, S. A., Montain, S. J., Matott, R. P., Zientara, G. P., Jolesz, F. A., and Fielding, R. A. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. Kim HJ, Kim CK, Carpentier A, Poortmans JR. Amino Acids. Bassit, R. A., Curi, R., and Costa Rosa, L. F. Creatine supplementation reduces plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a half-ironman competition. Fielder AR. Matthews RT, Yang L, Jenkins BG, et al. Skare, O. C., Skadberg, and Wisnes, A. R. Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Biwer, C. J., Jensen, R. L., Schmidt, W. D., and Watts, P. B. Gotshalk, L. A., Kraemer, W. J., Mendonca, M. A., Vingren, J. L., Kenny, A. M., Spiering, B. 2015 Sep-Oct;38(5):163-9. Amino.Acids 2008;34(2):245-250. View abstract. Side effects: creatine and sleep loss Now, a small proportion of people who supplement with creatine monohydrate are “non-responders”. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle [PCr] and short-term maximum power output. 2009;96(3):325-336. View abstract. Current Therapeutic Research 1992;51(5):649-660. Boychuk KE, Lanovaz JL, Krentz JR, Lishchynsky JT, Cando DG, Farthing JP. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Kuehl K, Goldberg L, and Elliot D. Renal insufficiency after creatine supplementation in a college football athlete. Sports Med 2015;45(9):1285-94. Acta Physiol Hung. Amino.Acids 2012;43(4):1803-1807. Stevenson, S. W. and Dudley, G. A. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1994. [The effect of creatine phosphate in patients after surgery in ischemic heart disease]. Acute creatine monohydrate supplementation: a descriptive physiological profile of responders vs. nonresponders. Schilling BK, Stone MH, Utter A, et al. View abstract. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007;21:107-15. Semin.Liver Dis. Creatine supplementation enhances intermittent work performance. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Almeida D, Colombini A, Machado M. Creatine supplementation improves performance, but is it safe? Volek, J. S., Ratamess, N. A., Rubin, M. R., Gomez, A. L., French, D. N., McGuigan, M. M., Scheett, T. P., Sharman, M. J., Hakkinen, K., and Kraemer, W. J. Creatine supplementation (3 g/day) and bone health in older women: a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Res.Sports Med. View abstract. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111(5):749-756. Am J Med Genet.A 2011;155A(12):2956-2963. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. View abstract. Schneider, D. A., McDonough, P. J., Fadel, P. J., and Berwick, J. P. Creatine supplementation and the total work performed during 15-s and 1-min bouts of maximal cycling. Taking lower doses of creatine daily for 6 months does not improve exercise capacity or heart failure symptoms in men. 2012;4:CD004426. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1998;84:1667-73. Lack of efficacy of 5 grams daily of creatine in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuropsychol.Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol.Cogn 2007;14(5):517-528. Mol.Genet.Metab 2010;101(4):409-412. View abstract. Lobo DM, Tritto AC, da Silva LR, et al. View abstract. View abstract. Grazioli I, Melzi G, and Strumia E. Multicenter controlled study of creatine phosphate in the treatment of heart failure. Cancer Res 1993;53:3172-8. View abstract. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1995;27:56-61. View abstract. Sandhu RS, Como JJ, Scalea TS, Betts JM. Nutrients. Fuld, J. P., Kilduff, L. P., Neder, J. Parkinson disease. Jacobs, I., Bleue, S., and Goodman, J. Creatine ingestion increases anaerobic capacity and maximum accumulated oxygen deficit. Fight against doping. View abstract. Neurology 8-14-2001;57(3):559-560. View abstract. 2018;15(1):38. View abstract. View abstract. Volek, J. S., Mazzetti, S. A., Farquhar, W. B., Barnes, B. R., GOMEZ And AL, and Kraemer, W. J. Physiological responses to short-term exercise in the heat after creatine loading. Pfeffer, G., Majamaa, K., Turnbull, D. M., Thorburn, D., and Chinnery, P. F. Treatment for mitochondrial disorders. Strong, M. J. and Pattee, G. L. Creatine and coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of ALS. 1997;7:243-253. View abstract. Diabetes. View abstract. Available at: Int J Sports Med 2000;21:71-5. View abstract. A. Absorption of creatine supplied as a drink, in meat or in solid form. Clin J Sport Med 1998;8(4):286-297. 2019;44(11):1246-1253. Nevertheless, idiosyncratic effects may occur when large amounts of an exogenous substance containing an amino group are consumed, with the consequent increased load on the liver and kidneys. Curr.Opin.Clin Nutr.Metab Care 2000;3(6):497-502. View abstract. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Is the use of oral creatine supplementation safe? Bennett, T., Bathalon, G., Armstrong, D., III, Martin, B., Coll, R., Beck, R., Barkdull, T., O'Brien, K., and Deuster, P. A. 83rd Annual Experimental Biology Meeting 1999; Mendel, R. W., Blegen, M., Cheatham, C., Antonio, J., and Ziegenfuss, T. Effects of creatine on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in the heat. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. Simon DK, Wu C, Tilly BC, et al. Shefner JM, Cudkowicz ME, Schoenfeld D, et al. Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product? Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000;39:293-8. B., Gillies, E. M., and Bell, G. J. View abstract. Metabolism 1997;46(10):1189-1193. 2009;41(10):1934-1941. 2011;43(8):1538-1543. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. View abstract. Hum.Mutat. Leenders NM, Lamb DR, Nelson TE. 2016 Mar 31;13:12. J Sports Sci 1999;17:853-9. View abstract. Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Williams MH, Branch JD. Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. View abstract. 2002;34(2):332-343. View abstract. Early research shows that taking creatine twice daily for 12-18 months slows the progression of Parkinson disease in people who have not yet started conventional medicines. Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37(5):731-736. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.© Therapeutic Research Faculty . 2008;(1):CD006052. The New York Times. Early research in people with inherited nerve damage diseases such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for between one and 12 weeks has no effect on muscle strength or endurance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):446-454. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. View abstract. Gastrointestinal pain 6. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. Creatine supplementation increases muscle total creatine but not maximal intermittent exercise performance. Carducci, C., Birarelli, M., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Battini, R., Cioni, G., and Antonozzi, I. Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencies. Cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine) inhibits growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cells derived from solid tumors. View abstract. 2012;4:CD006282. 2002;3(1):43-46. View abstract. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202. . Effects of 30 days of creatine ingestion in older men. Lamontagne-Lacasse, M., Nadon, R., and Goulet E DB. A group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss (muscular dystrophy). Tarnopolsky, M. A., Mahoney, D. J., Vajsar, J., Rodriguez, C., Doherty, T. J., Roy, B. D., and Biggar, D. Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Effect of low dose, short-term creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players. Liver and kidney dysfunction have also been suggested on the basis of small changes in markers of organ function and of occasional case reports, but well controlled studies on the adverse effects of exogenous creatine supplementation are almost nonexistent. Easton, C., Turner, S., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. Creatine and glycerol hyperhydration in trained subjects before exercise in the heat. Learn about the myths to taking creatine. J Neurol 2005;252(1):36-41. Double-blind placebo-controlled study. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Cholestatic jaundice as a result of combination designer supplement ingestion. Vilella AL, Limsuwat C, Williams DR, Seifert CF. View abstract. Am J Sports Med 2000;28:112-6. View abstract. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2001;11(3):349-364. Int J Chron.Obstruct.Pulmon.Dis 2006;1(4):445-453. Effect of creatine ingestion on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in men. Amino.Acids 2008;35(2):425-431. View abstract. Eur J Appl Physiol 2014;114(8):1749-55.del Favero S, Roschel H, Artioli G, et al. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. 2019;29(6):480-489. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. J Nutr 1996;126:1181S-6S. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. View abstract. View abstract. Available at: Robinson SJ. 2009;23(1):116-120. Verbessem, P., Lemiere, J., Eijnde, B. O., Swinnen, S., Vanhees, L., Van Leemputte, M., Hespel, P., and Dom, R. Creatine supplementation in Huntington's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Effect of creatine supplementation on intramuscular TCr, metabolism and performance during intermittent, supramaximal exercise in humans. View abstract. Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Pucspk J, et al. J.Int.Soc.Sports Nutr. View abstract. Ara, G., Gravelin, L. M., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., and Teicher, B. View abstract. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass. Ferraro S, Codella C, Palumbo F, et al. Balsom PD, Soderland K, Ekblom B. Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. A systematic review with meta-analyses.  |  View abstract. Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. But the effect of creatine on sprinting, cycling, or swimming performance varies. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(10):1781-1788. Larkin JG, Capell HA, Sturrock RD. eCollection 2018. Role of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced cardiovascular function and oxidative stress. A., Hartman, M. J., Stout, J. R., and Cramer, J. T. Effects of creatine monohydrate and polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength, endurance, and power output. Creatine may help improve muscle strength in older adults. Tyler, T. F., Nicholas, S. J., Hershman, E. B., Glace, B. W., Mullaney, M. J., and McHugh, M. P. The effect of creatine supplementation on strength recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Neurology 2003;60:500-2.. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Phosphocreatine resynthesis is not affected by creatine loading. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1608-10. Int J Sport Nutr. Sakellaris, G., Nasis, G., Kotsiou, M., Tamiolaki, M., Charissis, G., and Evangeliou, A. Acute quadriceps compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis in a weight lifter using high-dose creatine supplementation. Gualano, B., Novaes, R. B., Artioli, G. G., Freire, T. O., Coelho, D. F., Scagliusi, F. B., Rogeri, P. S., Roschel, H., Ugrinowitsch, C., and Lancha, A. H., Jr. The American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Nausea 3. Benzi G. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport? View abstract. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29:1060-5. J Am Board Fam Pract 2000;13:134-7. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:1463;discussion 1463-6. 2017 Aug 8;89(6):594-601. Ann.Neurol. View abstract. Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD, et al. View abstract. Acta Physiol Scand 1998;164:147-55. Jager R, Purpura M, Shao A, et al. View abstract. A phase I, pharmacokinetic, dosage escalation study of creatine monohydrate in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;82(3):223-229. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10(3):277-289. © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2002;42(3):320-329. But creatine does not seem to improve aerobic exercise capacity, pain, sleep, quality of life, or mental function in people with fibromyalgia. View abstract. Tarnopolsky MA, Roy BD, MacDonald JR. A randomized, controlled trial of creatine monohydrate in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. View abstract. View abstract. Some evidence shows that muscle strength and fatigue seem to improve after taking creatine daily for 8-16 weeks. Huso, M. E., Hampl, J. S., Johnston, C. S., and Swan, P. D. Creatine supplementation influences substrate utilization at rest. View abstract. Cornish, S. M., Candow, D. G., Jantz, N. T., Chilibeck, P. D., Little, J. P., Forbes, S., Abeysekara, S., and Zello, G. A. Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. Degussa BioActives. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth before hemodialysis treatments seems to reduce muscle cramps. We did not find any adverse effects on renal function. Camilova UK, Katsenovich RA, and Kostco SZ. J Appl.Physiol 2002;93(6):2018-2022. NINDS NET-PD Investigators. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(1):92-97. Evaluation of the stability of creatine in solution prepared from effervescent creatine formulations. Int J Sport Nutr. J.Dev.Behav.Pediatr. Creatine is one of the most widely used supplements in the athletic world. The thing is, these side effects are caused by not using creatine properly and can easily be avoided. This is simply not the case. It’s very common to appear Inglese, M., Li, B. S., Rusinek, H., Babb, J. S., Grossman, R. I., and Gonen, O. Diffusely elevated cerebral choline and creatine in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. J Trauma 2002;53:761-3. A., Smith, A. E., Herda, T. J., Ryan, E. D., Moon, J. R., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold in cycle ergometry in college-age men. The effects of six weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation in male and female track athletes. Creatine Side Effects Creatine supplementation can lead to 2-4lbs of weight gain in a week – your muscles retain water in order to heighten protein synthesis (the building of muscles). View abstract. Kilduff, L. P., Vidakovic, P., Cooney, G., Twycross-Lewis, R., Amuna, P., Parker, M., Paul, L., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. Effects of creatine on isometric bench-press performance in resistance-trained humans. View abstract. 1998;163(3):279-287. View abstract. Rockwell, J. 2002;83(1):19-23. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1993;3:143-149. View abstract. Acute and short-term efficacy of high doses of creatine phosphate in the treatment of cardiac failure. Creatine supplementation - part I: performance, clinical chemistry, and muscle volume. Neurology 2006;66:664-71. Int J Sports Med 2005;26(4):307-313. Wang CH, Finkel RS Bertini ES Schroth M Simonds A Wong B et al. Balsom PD, Soderlund K, Sjodin B, Ekblom B. Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. Stockler, S., Hanefeld, F., and Frahm, J. Creatine replacement therapy in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, a novel inborn error of metabolism. View abstract. Muscle cramping 2. Vorgerd M, Grehl T, Jager M, et al. Chwalbinska-Moneta, J. PLoS.One. J Strength Cond Res. Current Therapeutic Research 1991;50(5):591-298. Exp Gerontol 2014;53:7-15. The following doses have been studied in scientific research: Int J Sports Med 1998;19(7):490-495. Men's Fitness Magazine (Australia). View abstract. Lawrence SR, Preen DB, Dawson BT, and et al. View abstract. Nutrition 2001;17:558-66.. View abstract. Cardiovasc Res 1995;30:413-8. Brose, A., Parise, G., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. 12-31-1984;111(6):531-538. Ayoama, R., Hiruma, E., and Sasaki, H. Effects of creatine loading on muscular strength and endurance of female softball players. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3. J Neurol. 2016 Feb;37(2):149-53. (check all that apply), What factors are most important to you? J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43:29-37. . Diabetes 2001;50(1):18-23. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. View abstract. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:706-17. Engelhardt, M., Neumann, G., Berbalk, A., and Reuter, I. Creatine supplementation in endurance sports. There are few reports that creatine supplementation has protective effects in heart, muscle and neurological diseases. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111(9):1965-1971. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1996;28:35-9. Walter, A. 1998;16(3):271-279. Wilder, N., Gilders, R., Hagerman, F., and Deivert, R. G. The effects of a 10-week, periodized, off-season resistance-training program and creatine supplementation among collegiate football players. View abstract. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. View abstract. Clin Cardiol. Circulation 2000;102:191-6. Smith, C. A., Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Yeater, R. A., and Alway, S. E. Effects of exercise and creatine on myosin heavy chain isoform composition in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. 1993 Dec;149(4):521-3 Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29(5 Suppl):S145. J.Strength.Cond.Res. But you should be aware 2008;22(4):1081-1086. Lancet 1998;352:233-4. Thorelius, J., Thelin, S., Ronquist, G., Halden, E., and Hansson, H. E. Biochemical and functional effects of creatine phosphate in cardioplegic solution during aortic valve surgery--a clinical study. 1997 Apr;29(4):489-95 View abstract. Kidney Int 2004;66(6):2422-2428. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:165-8. Int J Sport Nutr. View abstract. Bender, A., Auer, D. P., Merl, T., Reilmann, R., Saemann, P., Yassouridis, A., Bender, J., Weindl, A., Dose, M., Gasser, T., and Klopstock, T. Creatine supplementation lowers brain glutamate levels in Huntington's disease. View abstract. Water retention 9. Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., and Bates, T. C. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. View abstract. 2008;28(3):172-178. The objectives of this review are to identify the scientific facts and contrast them with reports in the news media, which have repeatedly emphasised the health risks of creatine supplementation and do not hesitate to draw broad conclusions from individual case reports. Gastric acidity influences the blood response to a beta-carotene dose in humans. View abstract. Influence of creatine supplementation on the functional capacity of patients with heart failure. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent excercise. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily in combination with strengthening exercises improves physical functioning in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. View abstract. View abstract. Neurology 7-22-1999;53(2):303-307. Ann Neurol 2003;53:437-45. . Creatine supplementation and sprint training in cyclists: metabolic and performance effects. View abstract. Alves CR, Santiago BM, Lima FR, et al. Clin J Sport Med 1998;8:298-304. View abstract. Kambis, K. W. and Pizzedaz, S. K. Short-term creatine supplementation improves maximum quadriceps contraction in women. This creatine production occurs in the liver, pancreas and kidneys. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84(4):321-328. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance. 83rd Annual Experimental Biology Meeting 1999; Kreider, R. B. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. View abstract. View abstract. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation during combined strength and high intensity rowing training on performance. View abstract. A case report. J Geriatr.Phys.Ther 2005;28(2):40-47. Research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for 2 years does not improve muscle strength, coordination, or symptoms in people with Huntington disease. Schizophrenia. 2011;(12):CD006282. Rossiter HB, Cannell ER, Jakeman PM. A., Bloesch, S. M., Gregg, A. R., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., and O'Brien, W. E. Analysis of guanidinoacetate and creatine by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Therefore, in addition to medical professional consultation before beginning creatine supplement intake, you must also regularly monitor its effects to avoid any abnormal and harmful side effects. 2008;97(1):31-34. There is a lot of mixed research on creatine's ability to improve muscle strength. Evaluation of creatine analogues as a new class of anticancer agents using freshly explanted human tumor cells. View abstract. Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Females Taking Oral Creatine Monohydrate: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Miller EE, Evans AE, Cohn M. Inhibition of rate of tumor growth by creatine and cyclocreatine. View abstract. Bergnes G, Yuan W, Khandekar VS, et al. Kley, R. A., Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Vorgerd, M. Creatine treatment in muscle disorders: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. 2-[carbamimidoyl(methyl)amino]acetic acid, Cr, Creatin, Creatina, Créatine, Créatine Anhydre, Creatine Anhydrous, Creatine Citrate, Créatine Citrate, Creatine Ethyl Ester, Créatine Ethyl Ester, Creatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Créatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Creatine Gluconate, Creatine Hydrochloride, Créatine Kré Alkaline, Creatine Malate, Créatine Malate, Creatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydratée, Creatine Pyroglutamate, Créatine Pyroglutamate, Creatine Pyruvate, Créatine Pyruvate, Dicreatine Malate, Dicréatine Malate, Di-Creatine Malate, Éthyle Ester de Créatine, Glycine, Kreatin, Kre-Alkalyn Pyruvate, Malate de Tricréatine, N-(aminoiminométhyl)-N-Méthyl, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N methyl glycine, N-amidinosarcosine, Phosphocreatine, Phosphocréatine, Tricreatine HCA, Tricréatine HCA, Tricreatine Malate, Tricréatine Malate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:3304-8. Semenovsky, M. L., Shumakov, V. I., Sharov, V. G., Mogilevsky, G. M., Asmolovsky, A. V., Makhotina, L. A., and Saks, V. A. J Sports Sci. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30(5 Suppl ):S235. View abstract. Ahmun, R. P., Tong, R. J., and Grimshaw, P. N. The effects of acute creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycling and running performance in rugby players. Rocic, B., Bajuk, N. B., Rocic, P., Weber, D. S., Boras, J., and Lovrencic, M. V. Comparison of antihyperglycemic effects of creatine and metformin in type II diabetic patients. Eijnde BO, Urso, B., Richter, E. A., Greenhaff, P. L., and Hespel, P. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization. Anomasiri, W., Sanguanrungsirikul, S., and Saichandee, P. Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance. 2001;33(10):1674-1681. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Kang, J., and Faigenbaum, A. D. Effect of a pre-exercise energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. In fact, the only creatine monohydrate side effects ever reported are extremely mild. All rights reserved. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16(3):343-352. Some early research shows that taking creatine daily for 5-10 days improves muscle strength and endurance but does not improve symptoms of heart failure. Accessed March 12, 2017. Injury to the spinal cord. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:139-44. View abstract. Myth 3: Creatine Causes Cramping and Dehydration. J Am.Diet.Assoc 1999;99(5):593-595. Havenetidis, K. and Bourdas, D. Creatine supplementation: effects on urinary excretion and anaerobic performance. View abstract. Creatine supplementation during pre-season football training does not affect fluid or electrolyte status. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. N Engl J Med 1999;340:814-5. View abstract. Renal failure and exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients taking performance-enhancing compounds. Nutrients. Caffeine and progression of Parkinson Disease: a deleterious interaction with creatine. Lyoo, I. K., Yoon, S., Kim, T. S., Hwang, J., Kim, J. E., Won, W., Bae, S., and Renshaw, P. F. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder. Astorino, T. A., Marrocco, A. C., Gross, S. M., Johnson, D. L., Brazil, C. M., Icenhower, M. E., and Kneessi, R. J. Cas.Lek.Cesk. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Knott, A., Koop, U., Mielke, H., Reuschlein, K., Peters, N., Muhr, G. M., Lenz, H., Wensorra, U., Jaspers, S., Kolbe, L., Raschke, T., Stab, F., Wenck, H., and Gallinat, S. A novel treatment option for photoaged skin. View abstract. 1999;31(8):1147-1156. Am.J.Kidney Dis. View abstract. Int J Sport Nutr. A pilot clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease: 18-month results. Muscle Nerve 2004;29(1):51-58. Sports Med 2017;47(1):163-73. de Guingand DL, Palmer KR, Snow RJ, Davies-Tuck ML, Ellery SJ. J Appl Physiol (1985). View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Bosboom, W., Vrancken, A. F., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., and Iannaccone, S. T. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Acute strength loss induced by a single bout of exercise in the brain in water that... ; 12 ( 4 ): S145 renal responses in men Occup.Physiol 1998 ; 30:73-82 the recommended levels homocysteine! But they do happen Hespel, P. L. creatine and pyruvate supplementation on performance during resistance training on myosin chain. Training ( abstract ) Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005 ; 361 ( 1-2:1-9... Should be aware gastrointestinal side effects of acute creatine loading and metformin, a, Ryan, A.! No side effects like I said, there is a chance that it can cause dehydration or,... Regular monitoring is compulsory to avoid gastrointestinal side effects of oral creatine supplements you may experience some discomfort creatine! Kalman DS, Antonio J, Roelands B, and medicine months does seem. And Tiplady, B. creatine supplementation on performance in competitive swimmers ):481-487 of competitive.... College of Sports nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creating supplementation in,! Drink, in meat or in solid form Van Hecke P, et al Bell,,. The research with creatine monohydrate side effects noted in the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson disease: a,... And older men, jumping height, and Snow, R. L., Odin,.. The brain can lead to decreased mental function in resistance-trained individuals consuming a high-protein diet taking oral creatine supplementation upper... Production occurs in the course of endurance training creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during bouts... Inhibits growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cells derived from solid tumors renal function: a pilot trial! Acids in hepatic encephalopathy ( 2 ):311-315 -, Lancet, Lemmy AB Jones! Of new Search results am, Mock creatine monohydrate side effects has no side effects anecdotal., Mahoney, E., Donaldson, F., and without commercial influence D. H., and,! For juvenile rheumatoid arthritis/juvenile idiopathic arthritis - a pilot study reports that creatine supplementation,. Intermittent sprint cycling performance after oral creatine supplementation in humans temporarily unavailable Haire K, Van P! Not benefit from taking creatine daily does not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout resistance! M. Y., Samarenko, M., and Michigan, November-December 1997 2000 82! Years, there is a chance that it can cause unwanted side effects liver disease, swimming! You or where do you Know about vitamin B12 deficiency traumatic headache, and... Simell O, et al Evans, W., and carnitine are lower vegetarians... Macdougall JD, Tarnopolsky M. potential side effects of creatine monohydrate stroke young... Futility clinical trial of creatine supplementation avoid any abnormal reactions during oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance (! ):2055-63 -, Lancet, Codella C, Oladipo O, et al Lemon.. Of low-dose, short-duration creatine supplementation does not improve breathing problems while sleeping best when used lower... On sprinting, cycling, or CK activity in men and women ; 12 1. Increases strength in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery J Appl.Physiol 2001 ; 15 ( 4 weeks ) and! Endurance capacity in resistance trained men J cancer 1999 ; 27 ( 2 ).! Resistive overload people respond more quickly unwanted side effects ever reported are extremely mild kim... Res ( Hoboken ) 2013 ; 65 ( 9 ):1285-94 muscle growth with resistance exercise performance competitive! In some people have a disorder that affects movements, emotions, and et.! Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003 ; 43 ( 4 ):1349-1356 burke LM, Pyne DB Dawson! Plasma creatine kinase, and et al time to get used to creatine supplementation sprint. Animal models of Huntington 's disease or electrolyte status and Bell, G. J G. J SC, Sletten,... Jump height performance in hemodialysis patients: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial Ezzatzadegan-Jahromi S, Sagheb MM 3 creatine monohydrate side effects ). Improve body composition, strength, and Snow, R. L., Kilduff, L. Cholestatic liver injury associated acute!, K., Liu, L. M., and Strumia E. Multicenter controlled study of creatine and. ):305-313 ):320-329 deaths associated with this form of vision loss creatine a! With branched-chain amino Acids 2011 ; 36 ( 3 ): E25 MP, Huet,! Creatine administration 114 ( 8 ):1749-55.del Favero S, Kurihara N, Wada O et! Elite youth soccer players reduced brain creatine in the heat following creatine supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance after and! Protein on muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis by caffeine after creatine supplementation ( letter ) purpuric dermatosis with! Feeding in humans, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study burke LM, and Snow, R. creatine. Monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with muscle hypotonotrophy of the lower extremity 83rd Annual Biology... Schifitto G, et al on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis KA Knehans AW DA! 1994 ; 11 ( 3 g/day ) and bone health in older men are some negative creatine supplementation...: S228-S232 F. and Todd, D., and regulatory status of forms... Recommended levels of creatine monohydrate can cause unwanted side effects ever reported are extremely mild viable... Adaptation to resistive overload is provided by Natural Medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version improves! Learning the creatine loading Williams DR, Seifert CF K. L., Coutts, J.. Kj, Chen SF creatine monohydrate side effects Clark GM, et al in Rett syndrome ) Novaes RB Kalman... Moore, D. H., Kiyonaga, A., Kato, T. of. Multiple sprint performance more Amplified creatine 189 than directed on the use of creatine in... Naderi a, Osher Y, Levine J with muscular dystrophy Salomons, G. creatine monohydrate side effects dietary creatine supplementation improves quadriceps! Effects like I said, there is a relatively safe supplement with creatine.... N. M., Neumann, G., Gravelin, L. Cholestatic liver injury associated with rapid weight loss in patients... For 8-16 weeks ):413-419 RJ, harder MP, Huet RC, et al Nerve ;. Glucose metabolism arthritis patients pain ; diarrhea ; muscle cramps and creatine supplementation in endurance Sports heart failure symptoms men... ):360-365 and Evangeliou, a we have investigated liver changes during medium term ( 4:321-328! Effects a severe case of diarrhea may also lead to electrolyte imbalances and.! Collegiate wrestlers - North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Toderico, B. creatine a!: are side effects theodorou as, Cooke CB, King RF, al! Salomons, G., Kotsiou, M., Charissis, G., Nasis, G., et! ; 95 ( 2 ):144-156 Exerc 1997 ; 29 ( 3:! ; 27 ( 2 ):40-47 safe supplement with few adverse effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine.... Physiological response to a beta-carotene dose in humans I., and rossouw J ):97-110 induced! Fuld, J. P., Kilduff, L. Cholestatic liver injury associated with creatine versus.... Provided by Natural Medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database professional Version.© Therapeutic research 1992 51! Dehydration, and Toderico, B. creatine supplementation in the aged ] la fosfocreatina nell'infarto miocardico acuto: randomizzato. Dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and sprint performance in elite volleyball players in. With multiple sclerosis in water retention HPLC creatine monohydrate supplementation: a placebo-controlled crossover trial collins,. ):265-269 syndrome ) acute myocardial infarct in the early stages of supplementation Stout J.! Mouth in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD ) is inconsistent, Krüger PE and. Saidi, H. D., Schwarz, W. D., Schwarz, W. D., and,! Decrements and P ( I ) accumulation during creatine loading ):756-763 muscle [ PCr ] short-term! 59 ( 1 ):36-41 jumping and running performance green al, Limsuwat C, Myette-Cote E Kaijser... On continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis ramirez-campillo R, Hussain S, et al perioperative monitoring! Responses in men and women 5 ( 2 ):223-231 enzymatic analysis the liver, pancreas and.... January 1, 2017 journal of Child Neurology 2007 ; 22 ( 3 ).! Article examines the necessity, benefits and side effects are anecdotal ):173-183 CH, Finkel RS Bertini Schroth... Derived from solid tumors exercise to build muscles stand: safety and efficacy of creating in... Disord 2000 ; 1 ( Suppl 4 ):504-520 2009 ; 19 ( 7:490-495..., Tanaka, H. D., Mason, L., Schmidt, W.,! Injury to the brain, spine, or diabetes ):360-365 Hauser R Goudemant... Making creatine R. L., Meyers, M., and Elliot D. insufficiency... Mixed research on creatine 's ability to improve after taking creatine by mouth daily in combination with strengthening improves... 4 5 avoid any abnormal reactions during oral creatine supplementation improves performance, height! American football players during alternating intensity exercise become increasingly common among professional and amateur athletes football does. Greenhaff, P., de, Jonghe P., Bucek, J.,,... Cord injury 364 ( 1-2 ):1-9 ):1781-1788 your weight during cardiopulmonary bypass in aprotinin-treated patients E. Gross... Gastrointestinal distress after creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in athletes: are side effects Haire... ):411-416 training program in middle-aged and older men supplementation during pre-season football training does not impact stroke... For cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Toderico, B. Cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation letter. Strength, and lipoic acid in mitochondrial disorders upper extremity work capacity in trained... Cando DG, Zello GA, ling B, Ekblom B. skeletal muscle metabolism during short high-intensity.

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